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Gum Disease Photo - Dental Lip and Cheek Retractor

Gum disease

13 July 2017

Symptoms of gum disease

Healthy gums should be pink, firm and keep your teeth securely in place. Your gums shouldn’t bleed when you touch or brush them.

Gum disease isn’t always painful and you may be unaware you have it. It’s important to have regular dental check-ups.

Early symptoms

The initial symptoms of gum disease can include:

  • red and swollen gums
  • bleeding gums after brushing or flossing your teeth

This stage of gum disease is called gingivitis.

Advanced symptoms

If gingivitis is untreated, the tissues a Causes of gum disease
Gum disease can be caused by a number of factors, but poor oral hygiene is the most common cause.

Poor oral hygiene, such as not brushing your teeth properly or regularly, can cause plaque to build up on your teeth.

Plaque

Your mouth is full of bacteria that combine with saliva to form a sticky film known as plaque, which builds up on your teeth.

When you consume food and drink high in carbohydrates (sugary or starchy foods), bacteria in plaque turn carbohydrates into the energy they need, producing acid at the same time.

Over time, acid in plaque begins to break down your tooth’s surface and causes tooth decay.

Other bacteria in plaque can also irritate your gums, making them inflamed and sore.

Plaque is usually easy to remove by brushing and flossing your teeth, but it can harden and form a substance called tartar if it’s not removed. Tartar sticks much more firmly to teeth than plaque and can usually only be removed by a dentist or dental hygienist.

Symptoms of periodontitis can include:

  • bad breath (halitosis)
  • an unpleasant taste in your mouth
  • loose teeth that can make eating difficult
  • gum abscesses (collections of pus that develop under your gums or teeth)

Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis

In rare cases, a condition called acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) can develop suddenly. The symptoms of ANUG are usually more severe than those of gum disease and can include:

  • bleeding, painful gums
  • painful ulcers
  • receding gums in between your teeth
  • bad breath
  • a metallic taste in your mouth
  • excess saliva in your mouth
  • difficulty swallowing or talking
  • a high temperature (fever)

Causes of gum disease

Gum disease can be caused by a number of factors, but poor oral hygiene is the most common cause.

Poor oral hygiene, such as not brushing your teeth properly or regularly, can cause plaque to build up on your teeth.

Plaque

Your mouth is full of bacteria that combine with saliva to form a sticky film known as plaque, which builds up on your teeth.

When you consume food and drink high in carbohydrates (sugary or starchy foods), bacteria in plaque turn carbohydrates into the energy they need, producing acid at the same time.

Over time, acid in plaque begins to break down your tooth’s surface and causes tooth decay.

Other bacteria in plaque can also irritate your gums, making them inflamed and sore.

Plaque is usually easy to remove by brushing and flossing your teeth, but it can harden and form a substance called tartar if it’s not removed. Tartar sticks much more firmly to teeth than plaque and can usually only be removed by a dentist or dental hygienist.

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